Notes on capitalization and stemming

Google searches are not case sensitive. All letters, regardless of how you enter them, are understood as lower case. For example, searches for george washington, George Washington, and George washington all return the same results.

To provide the most accurate results, Google does not use "stemming" (key matching for partial-words) or support "wildcard" searches. Rather, Google searches for exactly the words entered into the search box. For example, searching for airlin or airlin* will not yield "airline" or "airlines". If in doubt, try both forms, for example: airline and airlines.

Automatic "AND" queries

By default, Google returns only those pages that include all entered search terms. There is no need to include "and" between terms. For example, to search for engineering product specification documents, simply enter the phrase.


To broaden or restrict the search, include fewer or more terms.

"OR" searches

Google supports the logical "OR" operator. To retrieve pages that include either word A or word B, use an uppercase "OR" between terms. The following search will return results for offices in either London or Paris.

Excluding words

You can exclude a word from your search by putting a minus sign ("-") immediately in front of the term you want to exclude. Make sure you include a space before the minus sign. For example, the following search will return pages about bass that do not contain the word music.